Entire rural market of China is witnessing massive boom. Rural Life in China is changing very fast. Rural Market in China has also got a new face. China is making 10 Cities on the lines of New York., How China has transformed its rural in such a big way? It is not a sudden development. China has been working consistently to develop its rural areas since quite long. The policies of Chinese leadership for rural development needs to be studied well to understand their strategy. The Chinese leadership’s focus on rural development is recorded in the “China’s No.1 central documents”, prepared and released by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, the State Council and the Cabinet. Managing Editor Onkareshwar Pandey summarises the whole document which has shaped China’s rural development policy in last One decade.
“China’s No.1 central document”, 2014 clearly highlights Chinese leaders concern about growing gap between rural and urban development and thus it focuses on providing food security to its citizens like India. The document says – “China will improve the mechanisms for safeguarding food security, seek sustainable agricultural growth while balancing rural and urban development, deepening rural land reforms and promoting financial support for rural areas.”
R&M’s study of China’s No.1 central document reveals that since the last 11 years China has been giving top priority to the issues related to rural. The highlights of 10 previous documents are as follows: In 2004, China’s No.1 central document set the agenda to “boost farmers’ incomes”.
Stressing that raising farmer’s incomes was a significant issue both economically and politically, the document prescribed measures including adjusting agricultural structure, increasing jobs for farmers, enhancing rural investment, deepening rural reforms, and advancing agriculture-related science and technology.
In 2005, the theme of China’s No.1 central document was “strengthening rural work & improving the overall food grain production capacity of agriculture”. Chinese authorities gave financial and technological support to boost for the agri sector to improve agricultural production capacity.
In 2006, the theme of China’s No.1 central doc. was – “constructing a new socialist countryside”. China set a five year goal from 2006-2010 to construct a new socialist countryside and urged for more efforts in coordinating the development of urban and rural areas, developing modern agriculture, boosting farmers’ incomes, enhancing rural infrastructure, promoting social causes in rural areas and deepening rural reforms.
In 2007, the No.1 central doc. outlined “developing modern agriculture and steadily promoting the construction of a new socialist countryside” as its core theme. The Chinese leaders set clear agenda of providing Modern equipment, using science & technology and introducing proper industrial systems and management with development ideas to nurture and improve the quality, economic returns and competitiveness of agriculture sector of China.
In 2008, the central theme of China’s No.1 central doc.was “fortifying the foundation of agriculture”. China ordered rapid development of an enduring mechanism for consolidating the foundation of agriculture, calling for more efforts to guarantee grain product safety and a balance between supply and demand, and between various grain products.
In 2009, China’s No.1 central doc. again outlined – “achieving steady agricultural development and sustained income increases for farmers” as its core theme. This year Chinese leadership highlighted challenges posed by the global downturn and urged its authorities to take resolute measures to avoid declining grain production and to ensure the steady expansion of agriculture and rural stability.
In 2010, the focus of China’s No.1 central doc.was “speeding up coordinated development between urban and rural areas and further cementing foundation of agricultural and rural area development”. The Chinese leadership promised more investment, subsidies, fiscal and policy supports into rural areas and improvement of the livelihoods of rural residents this year.
In 2011, China’s No.1 central doc. focused on “accelerating development of water conservancy”. This year China set a target of improving the country’s underdeveloped water conservancy works over the following 5 to 10 years. “Weaknesses in water infrastructure exposed by floods and drought brought promises of effective flood control and drought relief systems by the end of 2020 and again reiterated the need for more efforts to maintain grain production, increase farmers’ incomes and development momentum in rural areas.”-the 2011 document outlined.
In 2012, The No.1 central doc. of China stressed the need of “accelerating the scientific and technological innovation to strengthen supply of agricultural products”. The Chinese leaders again stressed that China should work hard to increase farmers’ incomes & maintain the social harmony and stability in rural areas by promoting industrialization, urbanization and agricultural modernization.
In 2013, the theme of China’s No.1 central doc. was “speeding up the modernization of agriculture and further strengthening the vitality of rural growth.” It listed ensuring grain security and supplies of major farm produce as the top priority in developing modern agriculture.
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