A Bikaner- based agriculture scientist Dr Ram Bajaj has made a scientific breakthrough for groundnut crop and this will lead to double the production without any extra expenditure.
Farming of legume’s crop of groundnut with addition of soil of living different growing plant in biofertilizer was used. The symbiotic interaction between two or more legume and non legume plants and symbiotic friendly developments of roots between two or more plants, not only boost plant nutrition but increase the number of pegs in groundnut as well as height and biological yield.
“The maximum double yield of groundnut crops in sandy soil of Bikaner, Rajasthan can be achieved with the help of groundnut Mycorrhizae Inoculant, its culture based–biofertilizer media made at site with “No Tillage” during sowing,” claims Dr Bajaj.
The research confirms that mycorrhizae are particularly important in mobilising phosphorus, nitrogen, zinc, iron, calcium, magnesium, manganese, sulfur and other tightly bound sandy soil nutrients by enzymatic release from recalcitrant chemical bonds and transporting them back to the groundnut plant.
“But mycorrhizal benefits do not stop there. These fungi also play a definitive role in a plant’s natural defense against fungal root diseases such as phytophthora, fusarium, phythium and rhizoctonia,” he adds.
Detailing the methods, Dr Bajaj says, peanuts are the subterranean seed of Arachis Hypogaea, a legume. On 20th May 2015 – the sowing of treated seed 2" deep into warm sandy soil, watered the soil, and waited. In 7 to 10 days, the seed germinated. The first clue that the seed has germinated is when you see a small bump of soil forming where you planted the seed. A powerful plant is growing underneath this small mound.
With ample sunlight and water, the plants grow rapidly as the roots obtain nutrients from the soil, and the leaves manufacture sugar by photosynthesis. A Nursery of 30ft x 30ft was prepared by us in advance before at least one month before sow-ing mixed seeds of groundnut,pearl millet , Moong, Moth, Grower Grass and other seeds of new season. By adding solid powder mycorrhizae on seed with diluted Molasses water so that the solid powder mycorrhizae may very well stick over mixed seeds before sow-ing in the above nursery.
Given enough sunlight, bio nutrients, and water, the plant flower within about 35 days after planting. Each self-pollinating flower lasts only one day. The pollinated flower then forms a gynophore, or peg. After pollination,the flower’s pedicel forms a peg (gynophore), due to cell division beneath the ovary. The peg quickly grows downward where it digs into the soil, due to positive geo-tropism. The peg contains the growing embryos of the plant. A cap of cells forms next to the withered style, to protect the ovary as it pushes through the soil. Once in the soil, the peg orients itself horizontally, and forms a single shell containing 1-3 seeds. More flowers and pegs grow daily until the plant dies within 120 days to 140 days. Total pegs may range from 50 to 60 pegs.
Encouraging mycorrhizae fungi in nursery will reduce fertilizer requirements and grow healthier groundnut plants. Secondly the mycorrhizae is also active in the soil as well as in the roots of groundnut, because of the solid powder mycorrhizae used on seeds before sowing in the field. The result of this powder make the plant – grow exponentially and healthy in all respect without facing any peathgens diseases usually comes across before any growers in this sandy area of soil.
From this research, groundnut growers can look forward to sowing much cheaper straight varieties using high density planting (HDP). This involves sowing the groundnut in closer spaced rows with plant per hectare as against the currently followed planting.Density levels of such plantings are obviously more feasible with varieties than costlier hybrid seeds.
The scientist claimed that inoculating seeds with mycorrhizae is an effective way to go. The benefits are the greatest and the cost is minimal, since treating, a seed usually takes less inoculum than is required to colonize the larger root system of a more developed ground nut plant.
The advantages and benefits of adopting mycorrhizae in agriculture, allows farmers to better visualize the scope of this phenomenon at the crop level and , in turn, the impact of its long- term adoption on the quality of life in improvement in nutrition, tolerance to water stress, resistant to low temperature, transformation of root architecture, diversity of microbes in soil development.