In a bid to dispel myths and create awareness about the dengue outbreak, Indian Medical Association has released a set of guidelines for the management of the disease.
Highlighting the guidelines, Dr. KK Aggarwal, Secretary General, IMA said,” The incidence of dengue will continue to exist this month and instead of creating unnecessary chaos and panic, it is essential that awareness is created about its prevention and timely steps are taken towards disease management. One must remember that only 1 percent of the dengue cases are life-threatening. Most dengue cases can be handled on an outpatient basis and do not require hospitalisation.”
Guidelines for Dengue Management
Simple Dengue Fever:
- Over ninety-five percent people suffer from simple dengue fever, which is not as threatening as severe dengue fever.
- In simple dengue fever, there is no capillary leakage, the person requires only oral fluids, 100 ml per hour, and is advised to visit a local doctor. Additionally, the patient is recommended to drink 500 ml water at the time of diagnosis
- Only those patients with dengue fever who have vomiting should consume intravenous fluids
Severe Dengue Fever:
- Those suffering from severe dengue develop capillary leakage and intravascular dehydration. Also, they suffer from a rapid fall in the platelet count along with rapid rise in their hematocrit levels
- They will have rapid fall in platelets along with rapid rise in hematocrit levels
- Persistent vomiting, nausea, extreme exhaustion and lethargy are some of the symptoms of dengue. Along with these symptoms, a victim might suffer unrelieved abdominal pain and mental irritability and confusion.
- These people require close daily observation
- Dengue patients are kept under close observation and are recommended to consume 1500 ml fluids immediately
- And in case, when they cannot consume liquids orally, then intravenous fluids are a must
What one needs to do in case symptoms are prevalent?
- The follow-up tests are required to witness the rise in hematocrit and significant fall in the level of platelets.
- The tests are required to be screened simultaneously.
- Platelets transfusions are not required unless there is active bleeding and platelet count is less than 10,000
- Keep a tab on hematocrit levels are crucial as their count decides the adequate requirement of fluids required by the body
It is important to remember the following:
- Capillary leakage only occurs when the fever is on the verge of subsiding
- In the initial 48 hours, including 24 hours after fever is over, are crucial, and the patient requires plenty of fluids as a sub-treatment
- Signs of itching or rash usually occur post the capillary leakage period is over
When is urgent admission required?
- If the patient is unable to consume or tolerate the consumption of liquids
- Pregnant women
- Underlying comorbid conditions
- Infants or elderly people
- Patients suffering from uncontrolled diabetes