As much as 75.42 percent of total rural households are marginal land owners, who own up to one hectare, while the proportion of families having more than 10 hectares is 0.24 percent, says a government survey.
"Within the rural households, the marginal land owners (possessing more than 0.002 but less than or equal to 1 hectare of land) constituted the highest proportion (75.42 percent) of total rural households," the National Sample Survey’s 70th Round on Land and Livestock Holdings in January-December, 2013, said.
According to survey a large land owners (possessing land more than 10 hectares) constituted the lowest proportion (0.24 percent) of the total households. The landless category (possessing land less than or equal 0.002 hectare) constituted 7.41 percent of rural households.
In terms of percentage of total area owned, the largest category was the marginal land owners owing 29.75 percent of the total land area owned Among all the ownership holdings, the families with self-employed in cultivation as the major source of income, owned the highest share of land (81.4 percent of total land) with average area owned 1.104 hectares.
Share of land owned by the families with self-employed in livestock farming and the households with self-employed in other agricultural activities were 1.5 percent each of the total land area owned.
As much as 88.6 percent of the household operational holdings were operated for the whole agricultural year, whereas 8.5 per cent was operated only during July-December, 2012, and 2.9 percent only during January-June, 2013.
The land use pattern shows that the estimated land area used for crop production was around 94.7 percent during the season July-December, 2012 and around 79 percent during the season January-June, 2013.
The proportion of areas of land used for non-agricultural purposes were 2.83 percent and 13.85 percent in these two periods respectively. The highest percentage of area was used for growing cereals in both the periods July-December, 2012 (56.21 percent) and January-June, 2013 (57.74 percent). The next major use of land was for production of oil seeds (13.75 percent and 7.34 percent) and pulses (6.30 percent and 10.20 percent) in the two seasons respectively.
At all India level, the major source of irrigation was ground water (tubewell, well, etc) covering 67 percent of irrigated land area during July-December, 2012 and 71 percent during January-June, 2013.
During July-December, 2012, the major states where land area was mostly affected by floods included Andhra Pradesh (26 percent), Assam (23 percent), Bihar (17 percent) and West Bengal (13 percent).
Amongst these, agricultural activities were mostly affected by flood in the states of Assam (7 percent) and West Bengal (4 percent). The results of the survey are based only on the Central Sample canvassed by NSSO, consisting of 4,529 villages spread over rural areas of all States and Union Territories.